https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/issue/feed Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research 2022-05-28T16:32:24+03:00 Oksana Parfenova site@soclabo.org Open Journal Systems <p><em>Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research </em>is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal produced by an international group of scholars. The journal comes out three times a year and publishes materials based on empirical qualitative social research in Russian and English.</p> https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1252 How Evidence-Based Medicine Developed in Russia: From Internet Forums to Evidence-Based Clinics 2022-05-28T15:16:17+03:00 Oksana Parfenova oparfenova@socinst.ru <p>The essay analyzes the transformation of the role and status of evidence-based medicine as a distinct phenomenon in the Russian context in the period from 2000 to 2021. Over these 20 years, evidence-based medicine, having gone from “the knowledge for the elite” to “a fashionable cliché,” has in fact become a brand, a marketing tool. Today, in the Russian-language mass media and on social media, expressions like “evidence-based clinic” and “evidence-based doctor” serve as a certain “mark of quality,” a brand. The increased popularity of social media has resulted in them becoming the main channel through which “evidence-based” doctors and clinics popularize medical knowledge, earn credibility, and find patients. I analyze this transformation of evidence-based medicine, in part, from the position of participant observation with elements of autoethnography. Assessing the ongoing changes from the perspective of a patient/client of medical services and specific doctors, I simultaneously reflect on them as an observer-researcher, drawing on external sources (expert statements, information from clinics’ websites, scholarship, publications in the media and social networks, etc.). The essay highlights three main factors that determined the trajectory of the development of evidence-based medicine: the marginal status of evidence-based medicine in the national healthcare system; institutional restructuring of the healthcare system in the post-Soviet period and the emergence of private medical care; generational change and the emergence of patients of the ”new formation.” The popularization of the principles of evidence-based medicine and their subsequent introduction into the practice of Russian private medical centers were accompanied not only by an improvement in the quality of diagnostics and treatment, but also by the birth of a patient of a “new formation”—not just a “demanding consumer” but a patient/consumer who is active, competent, willing to understand issues related to their own health and the health of their loved ones. The topic of personal health and health of loved ones is extremely sensitive, and we are dealing with a complex mix of negative experiences, a desire to control, fear, a sense of one’s own vulnerability, and, as a result, not only a desire but a clearly expressed need to trust the doctor and the medical system. In part, this problem can be solved by the concept of evidence-based medicine, aimed at ensuring the most effective interaction between the medical system and the patient. The widespread promotion of the principles of evidence-based medicine and the development of telemedicine can be seen as factors contributing to the reduction of inequality in access to quality medical services. Specialized social networks where reputable doctors recommend their colleagues and specific clinics help alleviate the problem of the devaluation of evidence-based medicine and its use as an advertising tool.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1217 Thomas Matza. Shock Therapy: Psychology, Precarity, and Well-Being in Postsocialist Russia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2018 2022-01-08T04:35:47+03:00 Karina Levitina klevitina@eu.spb.ru <p>Книга «Шоковая терапия: психология, прекарность и благополучие в постсоциалистической России» написана по результатам многолетних исследований американского антрополога Томаса Матцы. Цель работы – изучить произошедший в начале XXI века психотерапевтический поворот на постсоветском пространстве. Обращаясь к фукианской оптике, автор исследует распространение психотерапевтических практик, с одной стороны, как черту биополитики путинского режима, с другой – как практику создания нового постсоциалистического субъекта через новые техники себя. Матца задается вопросом: в чем состоят особенности создаваемого терапевтическим поворотом российского неолиберального субъекта?</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/977 Mariia Pirogovskaia. Miazmy, simptomy, uliki: zapakhi mezhdu meditsinoy i moral'yu v russkoy kul'ture vtoroi poloviny XIX veka. SPb.: Izdatel'stvo Evropeiskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2018 2020-02-09T15:40:54+03:00 Alexandra Nevskaia anevskaia@eu.spb.ru <p>Книга Марии Пироговской посвящена исследованию социальных факторов, определивших восприятие запахов и обонятельные нормы в российском обществе конца XIX – начала XX века. Пироговская на основании большого количества документов показала, как менялась социальная конфигурация чувствительности и почему чувство обоняния оказалось выдвинуто в публичное пространство, а различные запахи стали интерпретироваться как социальные факты. Книга представляет читателю взгляд социального ученого на то, как запахи организуют повседневные практики и обусловливают формирование институтов.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1226 Tracy McDonald and Daniel Vandersommers, eds. Zoo Studies: A New Humanities. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2019 2022-02-01T08:59:33+03:00 Anton Kotenko akotenko@hse.ru <p>Междисциплинарный сборник «Исследования зоопарков: новые гуманитарные науки» открывается замечательно подобранным эпиграфом о том, что история людей – лишь одна из многих историй, происходящих с живыми существами на Земле, и более того – возможно, история не самая важная. В этих словах из последнего романа Майкла Ондатже, по сути, и заключается главный тезис редакторов сборника Дэниела Вандерзоммерса (Daniel Vanndersommers) и Трэйси Макдоналд (Tracy McDonald). Вслед за философом Томом Тайлером в своей программной статье они призывают современных гуманитариев отказаться от «эпистемологического антропоцентризма» традиционной гуманитарной науки в пользу нового, более инклюзивного и, что еще важнее, сопереживающего гуманитарного знания,<br />не ограничивающего объект своих исследований людьми, а включающего и животных, «живущих рядом с людьми и несмотря на людей» (с. 5).</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1232 Mischa Gabowitsch, ed. Replicating Atonement: Foreign Models in the Commemoration of Atrocities. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 2022-02-20T00:01:58+03:00 Ivan Kurilla ikurilla@eu.spb.ru <p>Результатом стремления современных обществ разобраться с кровавым наследием XX века стал «мемориальный поворот» последних десятилетий, проявившийся во вторжении прошлого в политику, распространении массовых движений, объединенных отношением к определенным событиям истории, и формировании нового научного направления исследований памяти (memory studies). Разные страны включаются в процесс осмысления и преодоления геноцида, массовых репрессий и военных преступлений. Исторический опыт уникален, но политики и интеллектуалы в разных странах ищут образцы и «лучшие практики» преодоления трудного прошлого.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1233 Eliot Borenstein. Pussy Riot: Speaking Punk to Power. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021 2022-02-21T15:40:26+03:00 Nataliya Tchermalykh nataliya.tchermalykh@graduateinstitute.ch <p>Speaking Punk to Power by Eliot Borenstein delves into one of the most remarkable causes célèbres of the Putin era—the story of Pussy Riot. At first an anonymous feminist collective whose radically ironic videos were visible mostly within the underground segment of the Russian internet, Pussy Riot became internationally famous after being accused of “hooliganism motivated by religious hatred” for their short musical performance in the biggest Russian Orthodox cathedral of Moscow. The sentence—two years of penal colony for two members, Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova—was announced in 2012. Ten years later, it is hard to imagine that such a controversy could actually occupy the forefront of Russian public debate, several years before Ukraine became an inexhaustible source for tropes of unruliness and radical threats to conservative values of the so-called <em>russkii mir</em>.</p> <p><em>Text in English</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1237 Ekaterina Lapina-Kratasiuk, Oksana Zaporozhets, Andrei Voz'ianov, red. Seti goroda: Liudi. Tekhnologii. Vlasti. M: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2021 2022-03-15T00:02:05+03:00 Elena Tykanova elenatykanova@gmail.com <p>Идея создания книги, которая собрала бы вокруг себя сюжеты, объединенные общим названием «цифровой город», появилась у руководителей и участников проекта «Карамзинские стипендии» РАНХиГС, если мне не изменяет память, в 2014 году. С тех пор в различных сообщениях, постах и разговорах всплывала информация о том, что книга готовится, обрастает новыми сюжетами и авторами, пересобирается и меняется. И вот в конце 2021 года на полках книжных магазинов появилось долгожданное издание «Сети города: Люди. Технологии. Власти», которое, я уверена, очень скоро войдет в обязательный список чтения текстов о городе для тех, кто читает на русском языке. Стоит отметить, что это уже вторая коллективная монография с участием Оксаны Запорожец в качестве редактора издательства «Новое литературное обозрение» (первая – «Микроурбанизм. Город в деталях», 2014). Обеим книгам под ее редакцией присущ свой фирменный стиль – пристальное внимание к фигуре горожанина: к его успешным практикам и починке «поломок», устремлениям и чувствам.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1238 Victoria Donovan. Chronicles in Stone: Preservation, Patriotism, and Identity in Northwest Russia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2019 2022-03-28T09:41:36+03:00 Anton Liutynskii anton040677@gmail.com <p>Книга Виктории Донован «Хроники в камне: сохранение, патриотизм и идентичность на Северо-Западе России» представляет собой результат многолетнего проекта, посвященного изучению национальной идентичности советской и постсоветской России. Заявленная цель работы – анализ принятия, использования и позднейшего восприятия российских архитектурных памятников в советском и постсоветском обществе в период с 1945-го по 2010-е годы. Донован интересовало, как архитектурное наследие древних северных городов России повлияло на самосознание советских людей, в котором военные подвиги русских воинов продолжались в трудовых свершениях советских людей. Помимо этого, она задается вопросом, каким образом забота об архитектурных памятниках меняет локальное самосознание жителей исторических городов, как история и архитектура трех городов российского Северо-Запада – Новгорода, Пскова и Вологды – стали основой для построения новой русско-советской идентичности: «сверху» – через решения властей и «снизу» – через массовую культуру и туризм.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1240 Roja Fazaeli. Islamic Feminisms: Rights and Interpretations across Generations in Iran. London: Routledge, 2017 2022-04-05T18:43:56+03:00 Yuliya Frolova Ahjkjdf.20000@mail.ru <p>На Востоке все еще считается, что феминизм – чужеродное понятие, пришедшее из западного мира и противоречащее местным нормам и традициям. Попадая в исламский мир, феминизм приобретает отличные от западной культуры черты, нередко вступает в противоречие с традиционным порядком и подвергается нападкам. Книга Ройи Фазаэли, профессора Тринити-колледжа в Дублине, «Исламские феминизмы: права и их трактовки на протяжении нескольких поколений в Иране» посвящена женскому движению в этой стране в период с 1906 по 2010-е годы. В целом научная деятельность Фазаэли фокусируется на гендерных отношениях в исламском мире, исламском феминизме, а также правах человека. Именно эти вопросы и оказались в центре внимания исследовательницы.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1253 Authors 2022-05-28T16:32:24+03:00 Laboratorium Russian Review of Social Research oparfenova@soclabo.org <p>This issue's authors.</p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1107 Family and Partnership on the Way to “Constant Happiness“: Transformation of Gender Ideology in the Process of Religious Conversion to Western Buddhism in Russia 2021-01-21T13:20:08+03:00 Svetlana Yaroshenko svetayaroshenko@gmail.com Valentina Isaeva vbisaeva@gmail.com Konstantin Divisenko k.divisenko@socinst.ru <p>The article, based on biographical interviews conducted in 2019 with members of the Karma Kagyu Buddhist communities in Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Arkhangelsk, and Severodvinsk, examines the impact of religious conversion on gender ideology that supports individual decisions about how to achieve well-being through changing attitudes to marriage and partnership, as well as through flexible combination of family and work in everyday life. The study relied on the methodology of the narrative analysis developed by the German sociologist Fritz Schütze, which is focused on identifying relationship between institutional structures and subjective action. In the analysis of the biographical interviews, the main attention is paid to those changes in individual’s gender ideology and practices that take place in the process of religious conversion and facilitate reinterpretation of negative life experiences and of the consequences of deprivation caused by failed life strategies. We argue that the influence of the parental family and gender norms and attitudes formed before the religious conversion in some cases turn out to be a source of cultural exclusion caused by contradictions in the realization of the gender schemes of the “main breadwinner” and “complete family” inherited and reproduced from the Soviet period. Cultural exclusion results in the biographical traumatic experience, which needs to be redefined and demands the repair of broken gender schemes. The transformation of gender ideology has a neo-traditional character, involving the articulation of gender differences, assigning them different ranks, and, at the same time, flexibility in their development at the individual level.</p> <p><em>Article in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1113 Poetics and Practice of Modern Urbanism: “Garden City“ as a Technology of Social Integration in Obninsk in the 1960s 2020-12-15T10:30:41+03:00 Alexandra Kasatkina alexkasatkina@gmail.com <p>The article, based on newspaper materials and oral recollections about Obninsk, the city of atomic science in the 1960s, explores how the Soviet ideology in its postwar version functioned in a small community of a newly built city, where the task of creating both an urban space and urban social environment was of paramount importance. Following the ”third wave” of Soviet studies, the author “takes seriously” Soviet ideological clichés and such activities sanctioned from above as volunteer tending of urban green spaces and amateur gardening. Using the poststructuralist interpretation of discourse by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the author identifies two main discourses, each offering its own version of urban sociality and urban identity, and both being components of the Soviet urbanism of the 1960s. The “garden city” discourse is formed by gardening metaphors, institutions, and activities. In this discourse, a city resident is any person involved in the care for urban space and, above all, in growing trees and flowers in communal spaces. The articulations of this discourse are presented in abundance in the Soviet public space of the 1960s. The data shows that participation in such activities gave some Obninsk residents a significant experience of collective activity, in other words, it played a significant role in creating the sociality of the young city. The “city of science” discourse is specific to Obninsk, the city of scientific and technical intelligentsia. Within the framework of this discourse being a city resident means being an expert in the field of science and technology and offering one’s own ideas about how the growing city should look like. Both discourses referred to the utopia of communist urbanism, but emphasized its different aspects, namely, social and technological ones: unity in a common concern for one’s living space and scientific and technological progress that should provide the means to create a communist Garden of Eden.</p> <p><em>Article in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1075 Industrial Safety and the Construction of “Soviet Quality”: Work Clothes during the Khrushchev Period 2020-10-08T11:21:02+03:00 Anna Petrova aapetrova@hse.ru <p>This article is devoted to the problem of quality in Soviet textile production and consumption. A product—a commodity—is created for a specific purpose, to satisfy the needs of its user. Today the quality of Soviet commodities is debated in the media, scholarship, and everyday life. But what is quality? And is it only a consumer who can articulate what quality is? The process of creating a product includes several stages—from an idea through production to sale or other form of transfer to the consumer—and at each of these stages a different understanding of quality may exist. I will examine this process on the case of the production of work clothes in the USSR in the 1950s and 1960s. Even in a situation where the consumer is not the buyer, as was the case with Soviet work clothes, the consumer can insist on better quality, give this concept a certain meaning, and endow the quality of products with some important characteristics. The consumer, without buying, consumed work clothes in large quantities. In the USSR of the 1950s–1960s, where industrialization had only recently been completed and where official policy now focused on catching up with and overtaking the West, demand for work clothes was very high. An important characteristic of work clothes is their ability to ensure the safety of the workers. During the period under review, the development of mass consumption and of science and technology was happening worldwide. These processes, as well as the competition with the West, did not allow the Soviet state to ignore the problem of safety and concern for workers. Therefore, the issue of quality became urgent, but it was not always possible to solve it successfully.</p> <p><em>Article in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research https://www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/1145 “Tell Me What Hurts Right Now”: Involving Children in Doctor- Parent Interaction through Asking a Question 2021-04-14T19:26:35+03:00 Aleksandr Shirokov aleksandr.shirokov@rutgers.edu <p>Various studies have shown that children make limited contributions to their own medical consultations. One explanation for this is that in Western cultures children are treated as incompetent agents who are not expected to actively participate in such institutional interactions as medical interactions. The article analyzes video recordings of pediatric consultations, particularly how children are involved in the doctor-parent conversation by asking a question. Such situations have a certain structure: first, the doctor poses a question to the parent, then the parent reasks this question to the child slightly changing the question’s design. The author focuses on this change in the question’s design and shows some of the problems associated with how participants formulate questions for children. The author shows that the problems that at first glance are caused by children’s actions are, in fact, the result of the social organization of interaction. The article also demonstrates that children tend to focus on toys rather than doctor-parent conversations during pediatric consultations. Therefore, when children are invited to participate, it is difficult for them to consider what was discussed earlier and recognize what the participants are doing right now. As a result, children may say something that contradicts what was said earlier or interpret the question in a different way than other participants see it. To a certain extent, the presence of toys puts children in a passive position and makes it difficult for them to participate further. The article has both conceptual implications for discussions about children’s agency and patient participation in medical consultations and practical implications for organizing doctor-parent-child communication.</p> <p><em>Article in Russian</em></p> 2022-05-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research